Category Archives: Columnists

Bodley Bulletins, by Julia Ludington

I hope everyone enjoyed a relaxing yet productive week off.

Now it is time to get back to work!

Keep in mind that this third-quarter marking period is technically only eight weeks long instead of 10, since two weeks are devoted to breaks.

This means all work done in this quarter counts a lot more than in the other quarters, so make sure you are on top of things.

Our varsity girls’ basketball team suffered a tough Section 3 loss to Jamesville-DeWitt last Tuesday.

Leading the team was Nicole Hansen with 9 points and Sydney Gilmore and Michaela Whiteman with 7 points each. Despite the outcome, we are very proud of the team and the accomplishments that they have made. Congratulations on a great season!

Mark your calendars in advance for our upcoming Music in Our Schools Month concerts. The G. Ray Bodley chorus will perform at 7:30 p.m. March 20. The GRB bands will perform at 7:30 p.m. March 26 and the GRB orchestra takes the stage at 7:30 p.m. March 27.

The orchestra concert will feature a collaboration of the Symphonic Orchestra and some of the members of the Wind Ensemble. I strongly encourage coming to see what they perform.

Hodgepodge, by Roy Hodge

Grandma’s House

Our house was one block from my grandparents’ house when I was growing up, so it seems like I split my time almost evenly between home and Grandma’s.

I knew every inch of Grandma’s house frontwards and backwards. When my brother and sister were with me at Grandma’s, we played “hide and seek” and I always had a favorite hiding place – and I don’t think that the other “hiders” and “seekers” ever discovered it.

My hiding place was inside Grandma’s “broom closet,” a narrow closet which, when the door was shut, looked like it was just another cupboard in the kitchen, filled with bottles, jars and boxes on shelves; but, as far as I was concerned, it was a neat place to hide among the brooms and dust mops.

One of my favorite spots in Grandma’s house was in the “cellar,” a place called the “coal bin.” Many older homes, including ours, as well as my grandparents’, included a space in the basement which in the not so distant past was used to store the coal which was shoveled into the nearby furnace several times each day.

When the coal bin wasn’t needed any longer to store coal it became a convenient little play space.

Another interesting place in the cellar was the nook, or was it a cranny, properly known as the fruit cellar. That little room had several shelves to store the fruits and vegetables that were put there during canning season, but was more useful to us kids as another hiding place.

Two floors and several stairs away, there was another part of my grandparents’ house which was a neat place for us kids to play in.

The attic was cleverly disguised as a closet in one of the  upstairs bedrooms, which made it a handy play room or hiding place.

And, don’t forget the cellar door.  While the cellars (or basements) of most houses were accessible by doors from inside the house there also were doors from outside the house at ground level, which lifted up to reveal stairs going down from the backyard into the house.

Those steps were necessary for grandmas and mothers to have a direct route to the clothesline in the backyard on laundry day, and, they provided another good place to hide.

Grandma’s house – it was such a great place for playing and hiding in the “good old days.”

Bargains – 1901 Style

I have been looking through some pre-Christmas issues of The Fulton Patriot from December 1901.

According to the paper’s front page, 1901 was the 65th year of publishing for The Patriot. The particular issue I was reading was the 50th of the year and was published for and distributed to Fulton and Oswego Falls, the village which occupied the west side of the bridges, across the river from Fulton.

The front page of that issue included a large picture of Santa Claus visiting and distributing gifts to two little girls on Christmas Eve.

Filling the rest of the page – the columns around and under the large photo – was an advertisement for  the J. L. Jones Store, 30 First St.,, Fulton.  The advertising was headlined “Jones’ Bulletin for Christmas” and “Our Goods Are Just As We Say They Are.”

Among items advertised were jewelry – bracelets from 15 cents to $2.50, and brooches and stick pins, from 29 cents to $3.00.

There also were sterling novelties – toothbrushes, nail files, etc.; leather goods – ladies card cases and purses, files, etc.; leather goods – ladies card cases and purses, and men’s wallets and card cases, 25 cents to $5.

Also advertised were men’s hosiery, handkerchiefs for ladies and men, gloves, neckwear, umbrellas and a full boys’ department.

Other advertisers in the Christmas issue included R. E. Phillips Drug Store, 5 S. First St., Fulton, which featured “All Nice, New, Clean Goods;” the Miller and Bogardus Grocery and Provisions Supply House, 108 Oneida St.,; and the Frank W. Lasher Store, on First Street, Fulton. They carried books and games for boys and girls, mechanical toys, fancy china and many other “Holiday Gifts.”

A Busy City

Also during that time, the city seemed to be alive with a full schedule of social events with the Maccabees, Fulton Tent, the Knights of Pythias, the Sons of Veterans, G.A.R., American Mechanics Lodge, the Lodge of Modern Woodmen, and the Grange planning events.

Lots going on, but remember, there was no television.

In the news department, the new Fulton-Oswego Falls Bridge across the Oswego River had recently been completed at a cost of $120,000.

As far as insightful information, the pages of that issue of The Fulton Patriot offered . . . “A Christmas Fact” – The future has a golden tinge; the past, too, may seem pleasant; But just about the Christmastide, There’s nothing like the present.”

Or, this . . . “Origin of Mince Pie – English plum pudding and mince pies both owe their origin, or are supposed to, to an occurrence attendant upon the birth of Christ.

“The highly seasoned ingredients refer to the offering of spices, frankincense and myrrh by the wise men of the East to the Christ Child.” – New York World.

It was a Merry Christmas, 1901 style.

. . . Roy Hodge

The Sportsman’s World

By Leon Archer

It might surprise some, but as a writer, I read a huge amount more than I write, and recently while sharing nanny duties with Sweet Thing in Sammamish, Wash., I’ve had the opportunity to do plenty of reading.

When it comes to reading, one of my passions is history, especially North American history. In the last three weeks I have read seven books on the topic.

I am sure some readers will wonder what in the world this has to do with the outdoors, but hang with me for a bit.

I read the following books: “The Frontiersman,” by Allan Eckert (600-plus pages); “Forgotten Allies,” by Joseph Glattharr and James Martin (400-plus pages); “Fusiliers,” by Mark Urban (380 pages); “Betrayals,” by Ian K. Steele (250 pages); “Rebellion in the Mohawk Valley,” by Gavin Watt (432 pages); “A Dirty Trifling Piece Of Business,” by Gavin Watt (500+ pages); and “I Am Heartily Ashamed,” by Gavin Watt (463 pages).

Altogether, I read better than 3,000 pages. It was an adventure for me.

If you got beyond the sixth grade, at some point you should have learned that Europeans came to the new world primarily for three reasons: religious freedom, free land and wealth.

The Spanish were the first to come in any numbers, and their interests carried them across the South to the Southwest, and West of what is now the United States.

However, their real impact was on Mexico, Central America and South America, where they found large quantities of gold and silver in the kingdoms of the Aztecs, Incas and Mayans, whom they immediately set about decimating while relieving them of the precious metals.

I confined my reading to colonial North America where settlers arrived primarily from the Netherlands, England and France. I know that ignores the sizeable numbers of Scots and Germans (Palatines) who also came to the new world, but they represented peoples, not nations.

The French claimed Canada, a strip of land on the southern shore of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River, as well as the Ohio Valley and vast areas of land surrounding the upper Great Lakes.

The Dutch were modestly situated primarily in our New York state along the Hudson River, and traded for furs with the Iroquois Indians between 1610 and 1664. This brought them into a direct competition with the French and their Indian allies.

The Dutch encouraged the Mohawks to expand their fur gathering into areas that were under the control of the French and the numerous Indian tribes who provided the furs to them.

That brought about the “Beaver Wars,” also called the French and Iroquois wars, as the Iroquois sought to extend their power and the French endeavored to stop them.

The English were not unaware of the Dutch fur monopoly that was developing in New Netherlands. England’s power was growing both north and south of the Dutch colony, and between 1664 and 1674 the two countries fought the three Dutch-Anglo Wars.

As a result of the wars, England relieved the Netherlands of her North American Colonies, leaving only France and England vying for the prize. It mattered little to them that the land was already occupied by various and sundry Indian tribes.

The fly in the ointment was the two European powers now standing astride this vast land were mortal enemies. Hundreds of years of intermittent warfare would now spread to North America.

The migrants who came from England came to settle the land. The Dutch before them had come for the same reason, but not with the ferocity and persistence, and numbers of the English.

The French came for the lucrative fur trade, and their settlements were established primarily to facilitate and protect that trade, not to really colonize and settle.

After digesting New Amsterdam, the English set about taking over its fur trade, but they also encouraged settlers to move north towards Lake Champlain and the Mohawk Valley. Over the next 80 years, several wars were fought between the French and English across the vast wilderness they both coveted.

At first the French were victorious, but year after year England’s strength in the new world grew while the French languished.

By 1763, the English had conquered the French and sent them packing but their victory would be short lived south of the Great Lakes, as a great new nation was in the throes of birth.

We are here and English speaking in a significant part, because of fur. That’s where it all began. Fur, mostly beaver, was a vital interest and desirable commodity in the New World, but by 1783, when peace was signed between the new United States of America and England, the beaver had nearly vanished from New York State, and at one point was down to a single small colony.

It may be hard to believe when we have so many beaver today, but 75 years ago, it was illegal to trap the beaver that had just begun to recolonize our state.

Next week, I’m going to be writing about the fur trade today. I would enjoy hearing from trappers, how they have been doing and the recent prices they have been getting for their pelts.

Drop me an email at lfarcher@yahoo.com — I’d love to hear from you.

Jerry’s Journal, by Jerry Hogan

Peter Palmer is the guy with one arm you often see walking across the Lower Bridge.

He also happens to be Fulton’s historian. He can remind you in rapid-fire talk about all the factory whistles in our town that used to blow morning, noon and night, and tell you stories about our local cemeteries, churches, our old downtown, and more!

I sat at my kitchen table a few weeks ago for an interview with Peter and I have six pages of notes to show for it and, as our conversation went — jumping from subject to subject — so this column will go as well.

Peter lives on the west side, on Worth Street, in a house his grandfather bought about a hundred years ago. It was previously owned by a Mr. Thompson who had built it for his wife as a wedding present.

Peter’s first name actually is Lawton. He was named after his father, Lawton Palmer, who was born in that house in 1915, and Peter, a bachelor, has lived there his whole life.

He is the oldest of three children. His brother Colburn, aka Coby, lives in Indianapolis and his sister Barbara lives on Cape Cod.

Lawton was his grandmother’s maiden name, and while his mother’s name was Florence she liked to be called “Pete.” Perhaps that’s where Peter got his name from, but he doesn’t know for sure.

Peter said his neighborhood in the First Ward was settled by the Irish, English and Germans.

“They had cousins all over the place — like most neighborhoods did back then,” he said.

The Murphy and the Sullivan families, for example, and, come to think about it, “the Aldermans, a Jewish family, also lived around there, on West Third Street, over in back of their junkyard on West First.”

Barnes Cemetery was also on West First Street, about where the Polish Home is today. The remains were moved to Mt. Adnah Cemetery, which in its beginning was called Oswego Falls Rural Cemetery.

“Oswego Falls was on both sides of the river — because there was the upper falls and lower falls — Peter explained. That was before the city was consolidated and named Fulton after the village of Fulton on the East Side.

His great grandparents are buried in Mt. Adnah, he said. Everybody got buried there.

That was before there was a fence between Mt. Adnah and St. Mary’s Catholic cemetery. The first Catholic Mass in Fulton was said in a private home by a priest from Oswego in 1850 with about 20 people in attendance. St. Mary’s Cemetery was established in 1872.

Both sides of the river had their own fire department back then. The one on West First and Worth Streets was called the Cronin Fire Department and was manned by volunteers.

Peter recalled the city of Fulton’s fire department downtown, on South First Street, and its bell tower you couldn’t miss. Peter said the bell was rung to denote where a fire was located. For example, 24 rings meant it was at Phillips Street School, 10 rings meant the fire was outside the city, and 2 rings meant the fire was out.

Sadly, the bell was taken down in 1954 when the tower was deemed unsafe. The last anyone saw of it, Peter said, was being loaded onto the back of a flatbed and carted off to be sold or junked.

It was long before that, though, when in 1888, Thomas Edison came to town to experiment and “electrified” the first house in our area to have electricity and electric lights. Peter said the house was where Price Chopper’s parking lot now takes up space, specifically on its southeast corner (where TOPS market used to have a flag pole).

William Schenck owned that house, he and Thomas Edison were friends, Peter said, and Schenck Street — that short, one-block-long street that most people don’t even know exists — is named after him. It goes from West First Street to the Lower Bridge.

As to being recognized as the guy with one arm, Peter said he didn’t mind if I discussed it in my column. He said he was born that way but never saw it as an obstacle to leading a normal life — as his mother had taught him and as he had learned, sometimes the hard way.

Peter said he has a driver’s license and once owned a car but prefers to walk as much as he can.

“No problem with parking,” he said. As a child he went to the old Walradt Street and Phillips Street Schools, and as a teenager to Catholic high school in Oswego.

He grew up a Methodist, he said, but when he was 12 he read the history of the Catholic Church and decided to become a Catholic.

After high school graduation he entered a monastery. That didn’t work out as planned, he declared, and he left it because “everything was done by bells” and he “wanted to come back into the world.”

“It was hard getting a job,” he said. GE wouldn’t hire him because he was handicapped.  “There was so much discrimination.”

But he did land a job despite it all: “My mother said there is no such word as can’t,” Peter said quite emphatically, and his first job was at Montgomery Ward on Cayuga Street here in town. That was only the beginning.

Peter has had a varied career. He once worked at the Messenger, a publication in Mexico, NY, doing filing and as a typist. “A typist?” I questioned. “Yes, “he kind of chuckled, “The nuns at Catholic High taught me how to type. They had a special book on how to type with one hand.”

Peter also spent time in the Planning Department at Sealright, but got “bumped.” He worked in the Oswego County Social Service office for a couple of years as well, and in the library of Syracuse University for four years.

Eventually he went back to the Social Services from which he retired after 32 years. “I worked all over the place at Social Services,” he laughed. “Had a great time working with 300 women — it was fun!”

Okay, Dear Readers, writing this has also been fun but I need to end this journal for now. Please come back in two weeks, though, when they’ll be more of Peter Palmer’s stories of old Fulton in my next column. Now here’s my caveat:

Readers beware! I write for fun. I am not a historian, nor a reporter. I write from memory and from what others want to share. Sometimes I look things up; sometimes I mess things up. I hope you have fun reading my stuff.

Your comments, additions and corrections are always welcome. You may contact me at 133 Tannery Lane, Fulton, phone 592-7580 or email JHogan808@aol.com. Please put Jerry’s Journal in the subject line. Thanks!

Bodley Bulletins, by Julia Ludington

I hope everyone is enjoying their week off from school.

The Student Senate, FBLA, French Club and Hope Club have all decided to extend the deadline for canned goods collection to Feb. 28.

If you have not already brought in any non-perishable items, or if you would like to bring in more, please plan to when we get back to school. It is for a great cause.

Some teachers are offering incentives for bringing in cans, so make sure to participate. Don’t forget that the Guided Study Hall that collects the most will win a breakfast.

Our FBLA team had a very successful competition recently. The club brought home 12 awards in total. Two first-place awards were won by two of our exchange students, and two other Bodley students also brought home first-place awards.

Our FBLA club always does very well, and we are very proud. Some students even make it to state and national-level competitions. Best of luck for the rest of the year to our fellow GRB students!

On Valentine’s Day, students enjoyed a bit of fun sponsored by the German Club. Students could purchase notes for that special someone or friends and have them delivered to their guided study halls on Friday. The event created a nice atmosphere for the holiday even at the high school.

Students who have signed up for the GRB mentor program should report to their second session Feb. 25.

See you all back at school next week!

Hodgepodge, by Roy Hodge

“Chick” Tallman

While recently re-reading a column that I wrote in “The Fulton Patriot,” I was reminded of a venerable Fulton character, Vernon “Chick” Tallman.

Chick had worked his way to the top of the list of well-known Fulton faces.

From that column:

“The first Fultonian I saw when I arrived in this fine city for the first time turned out to be Chick Tallman. As I approached the old Patriot building on the corner of Oneida and South Second streets on a wintry February day, Chick was in the middle of the road directing traffic.

“What a quaint uniform this city’s policemen wear, I could have thought.”

As I said in that column, I was soon to find out that if you knew anything about Fulton, you knew about Vernon “Chick” Tallman.

“Serving as a traffic cop wasn’t a strange role for Chick. I soon found out that Chick was also Fulton’s foremost ambassador.

“He was always somewhere to be found on the downtown scene. I got to know Chick well as The Fulton Patriot building served as his headquarters for at least part of every day.”

“He was responsible for seeing that every downtown merchant received a copy of each week’s Patriot, and he was always available to run errands throughout the area. Chick was often seen with a broom in his hand. He attended every baseball game in town, kept home plate swept clean, and often jumped on the bus for the away games.”

That column pointed out that Patriot employees had a lot of fun with Chick:  “One former employee remembers Chick studiously counting his papers out before delivery.

‘Two, three, four,’ Chick would say. ‘Eight, nine, 10,’ someone would say. ‘Eleven, 12, 13,’ Chick would continue. ‘Three, four, five,’ someone else would say. ‘Six, seven, eight,’ Chick would answer.”

Patriot employees also watched out for Chick. One year, after a particularly heavy first snowfall, employees made sure Chick had a sturdy new pair of winter boots.

The Patriot column detailed a special gift to commemorate Chick’s 70th birth-day. Fultonians responded to a drive spearheaded by Joe Arnold of Foster’s to raise funds to send Chick to New York City for a weekend of Yankee games.

Another Fulton native, Harold “Buck” Greene, who wrote a column each week for his hometown’s “Patriot,” through his connections with Major League Baseball, helped arrange Chick’s weekend trip.

“In his Patriot column that week, Greene said, ‘Well folks, it has happened, Chick Tallman has viewed the city of New York and most important, he saw the weekend series between the Yankees and the Twins.”

Greene continued, “What’s more, on Friday night Chick had the best seat in the house, behind home plate in a front row box. He could have called balls and strikes all night.

“Chick was presented with an autographed baseball by members of the World Champion Yankees, and before returning to Fulton he visited the World’s Fair.

“Time didn’t allow for a sweep-off of home base at Yankee Stadium, but after the action-packed weekend, with much royal treatment thrown in, Chick returned to Fulton with a new Yankees shirt along with the big Chick Tallman smile.”

Many Fultonians undoubtedly still have pleasant memories of Chick Tallman.

From “The Farmer’s Almanac”

Scanning the pages of the 2014 issue of “The Farmer’s Almanac,” I discover that I can:

*Buy “Fresh, Healthy Nuts” – (explanation required).

“Or Laundry balls, concertinas and old phonographs (or sell them).

*Find a “spiritual healer.”  Sister Cindy clears negativity and bad luck; Rev. Jackson is a voodoo healer, and Mrs. Annie, spiritualist, reunites lovers.

*There are several days listed during each month as the best days to: Have dental care, cut hair to encourage (or discourage) growth, or to can, pickle or make sauerkraut.

I also discovered that some folks are fond of puns, such as:

*A hole has been found in the wall of a nudist camp. The police are “looking into it.”

“Two silkworms had a race.  They ended up “in a tie”.

I was interested to learn about some “planting” folklore:

*To make a plant grow, spit into the hole you have dug for it.”

*Anything planted by a pregnant woman will flourish.

*Never thank a person for giving you a plant or it will die; in fact, the best way to ensure that plant slips will thrive is to steal them.

*Never plan anything on the 31st of the month.

*Never plant anything until the frogs have croaked three times, because there will be a killing frost before then.

*Anything planted on Good Friday will grow well.

Now You Know:

This year’s Farmer’s Almanac tells us:

*At the age of 60, fitness expert Jack La Lanne swam from Alcatracz to San Francisco’s Fisherman’s Wharf while handcuffed, shackled and towing a 1,000-pound boat.

*As far as the weather in our area of the country is concerned, winter was expected to be slightly milder than normal, with near-normal precipitation and below normal snowfall in most of the region.

And, finally, the Almanac wants us to know that 200 years ago, the lyrics of “The Star Spangled Banner” took shape on the back of a letter, scribbled there by Francis Scott Key.

                                       . . . Roy Hodge   

The Sportsman’s World — The Crossbow War

By Leon Archer

In July, 1863, when the armed forces of the Confederacy lost Vicksburg, their last stronghold on the Mississippi, and suffered the punishing defeat of Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia at Gettysburg, the South would have been wise to have sued for peace, but they soldiered on for nearly two more years before the civil war finally drew to a close.

The opponents in the Crossbow War could take a lesson from the misfortunes of Old Dixie.

Just as the Confederacy lost the war, imperceptibly at first, battlefield by battlefield, while the invading Yankees became stronger and more numerous, so the forces resisting the coming of the crossbow are facing defeat.

It may not be this year in New York state, but the results from battlefield to battlefield across this country leave little doubt who the winners will be in the end.

Gov. Andrew Cuomo announced his support for the legalization of the crossbow for hunting purposes in New York state during his State of the State message.

And just as importantly, he would give regulation authority for its use to the state Department of Environmental Conservation.

I don’t agree with a lot of what our governor has said and done, but I’m with him 100 percent on this.

Of course, we will need both houses of our legislature to produce legislation which the majority will support and pass in order for the governor’s proposal to become reality.

That legislation should include the final battlefield, which is that the classification of the crossbow would be as a legal bow for use in any season and any area where archery is allowed, including archery only areas.

If that final victory doesn’t come this year, it will come soon. The hand writing is on the wall, and further resistance can only damage both sides, not change the final outcome.

Since the early 1970s, when only Arkansas and Ohio allowed hunting with a crossbow, the number of states accepting its use has grown steadily. Today, a total of 34 states have loosened or dropped their restrictions on crossbows since the year 2000.

At present, the battle is completely over in 24 states which now allow the crossbow to be used during any hunting season where archery is allowed, a movement that is gaining popularity in other open-minded states.

This is a civil war, sportsmen fighting sportsmen, both sides believing they are right, but only one side can win, and the empirical evidence is clear, crossbows are in our future.

The strongest resistance comes from a sportsman’s group, The New York Bow Hunters. They argue the crossbow is some sort of superior weapon, a silent super weapon that will allow poachers to decimate the deer herd.

While they claim the crossbow has an effective range of nearly seventy yards, at the same time they suggest more deer will be wounded and run off if crossbows are allowed, because they claim the crossbow is not as efficient as the bow they use.

They say the crossbow is so easy to use that a novice can be slaughtering deer on the same day they buy it. They say the crossbow does not require the same amount of dedication and commitment that is necessary to become a good archer.

A lot of other things they say about the crossbow were used by opponents of the compound bow and releases back in the 70s. Those arguments don’t hold any more water today when applied to the crossbow than they did back when they were applied to the compound bow.

I have to admit that I have never hunted with a crossbow, but I have shot them at targets quite a bit. I can tell you one thing from my own experience. The crossbow is very accurate at close range out to 30 yards or so, but at 70 yards it leaves a great deal to be desired. I would hardly call it effective at that range. At the longer ranges, the compound is much better, but even then, few archers will chance shooting at a deer 70 yards away.

As far as a tool for poaching, it is too cumbersome and why use it when a 22 caliber rifle would do the job far better.

I have never been a poacher, but I knew an old fellow years ago who lived up on the Tug Hill east of Sandy Creek, and my father told me that man fed his family on venison year round that he took with a single shot 22 rifle. It is quiet, doesn’t draw attention, and it is lethal well beyond the effective range of the crossbow or compound.

As far as wounding more deer, think about this. There is no reason why a bolt from a crossbow should cause the loss of any more deer than one might expect from an arrow from a compound bow.

They both work exactly the same way, causing reasonably quick death from massive bleeding due to the razor sharp blades. To put down the crossbow on this account is to damn the compound bow as well.

When I bought my first compound bow, I was able to hit the bullseye at 30 yards after just a couple of shots to adjust my aiming pin. After that I was pretty consistent.

Later that week, I was shooting from the roof on my shed, putting arrows through styrofoam cups on the ground. It didn’t require any great amount of dedication and commitment to use the compound bow well enough to hit any deer that wandered by my tree stand.

The dedication and commitment has little to do with the ease of use of either the crossbow or the modern compound bow. It is learning to hunt successfully and consistently that requires dedication and commitment, and that is true whether you hunt with a rifle, shotgun, crossbow, compound bow or black powder rifle.

I truly believe that bow hunters just don’t want to share their archery season with anyone carrying a crossbow. They deny that, but the denial has a false ring to it in my ears.

I believe it is time to end the war. It is time for bow hunters and crossbow hunters to learn to live together. I’m pretty sure, in a few years, everyone will be wondering what all the fuss was about.

That’s what has happened in the 24 states that have led the way.

States Allowing Crossbow Hunting

Arkansas 

Ohio

Michigan

Florida

Kansas

Delaware

Indiana

Alabama

Maryland

Texas

Pennsylvania

Nebraska

Mississippi

Rhode Island

North Dakota

Virginia

New Jersey

Georgia

Kentucky

South Carolina

North Carolina

Tennessee

Oklahoma

Wyoming